Camera accessories

Accessories for cameras are mainly for care, protection, special effects and functions. Lens hood: used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source to prevent glare and lens flare. Lens cover: covers and protects the lens during storage Lens adapter: sometimes called a step-ring, adapts the lens to other size filters Lens extension tubes allow close focus in macro photography Flash equipment: including light diffuser, mount and stand, reflector, soft box, trigger and cord Care and protection: including camera case and cover, maintenance tools, and screen protector Large format cameras use special equipment which includes magnifier loupe, view finder, angle finder, focusing rail /truck. Battery and charger. In photography, a lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare. Flare occurs when stray light strikes the front element of a lens and then bounces around within the lens. This stray light often comes from very bright light sources, such as the sun, bright studio lights, or a bright white background[2] The light source itself may be in the lens' angle of view, but it doesn't have to be to cause a lens flare. It is only necessary that stray light from the bright light source enter the lens. A lens cover or lens cap provides protection from scratches and minor collisions for camera and camcorder lenses. Lens covers come standard with most cameras and lenses. Some mobile camera phones include lens covers, such as the Sony Ericsson W800, the Sony Ericsson K750 and the Sony Ericsson K550. A more secure lens cap is the metal screw-in lens cap which cannot pop off a lens accidentally. Although a screw-in cap takes more time to remove in order to take a photograph than a standard lens cap, it is stronger than plastic and therefore more protective. Macro photography (or photomacrography[1] r macrography,[2] and sometimes macrophotography[3]) is extreme close-up photography, usually of very small subjects, in which the size of the subject in the photograph is greater than life size (though macrophotography technically refers to the art of making very large photographs).[2][4] By some definitions, a macro photograph is one in which the size of the subject on the negative or image sensor is life size or greater.[5] However in other uses it refers to a finished photograph of a subject at greater than life size.[6] The ratio of the subject size on the film plane (or sensor plane) to the actual subject size is known as the reproduction ratio. Likewise, a macro lens is classically a lens capable of reproduction ratios greater than 1:1, although it often refers to any lens with a large reproduction ratio, despite rarely exceeding 1:1.[6][7][8][9] Outside of technical photography and film-based processes, where the size of the image on the negative or image sensor is the subject of discussion, the finished print or on-screen image more commonly lends a photograph its macro status. For example, when producing a 6?4 inch (15?10 cm) print using 135 format film or sensor, a life-size result is possible with a lens having only a 1:4 reproduction ratio.[10][11] Reproduction ratios much greater than 1:1 are considered to be photomicrography, often achieved with digital microscope (photomicrography should not be confused with microphotography, the art of making very small photographs, such as for microforms). Due to advances in sensor technology, todayТs small-sensor digital cameras can rival the macro capabilities of a DSLR with a УtrueФ macro lens, despite having a lower reproduction ratio, making macro photography more widely accessible at a lower cost.[12][8] In the digital age, a "true" macro photograph can be more practically defined as a photograph with a vertical subject height of 24 mm or less.